Levels of non-PBDE halogenated fire retardants and brominated dioxins and their toxicological effects in indoor environments-A review

Yi Chyun Hsu, Rachelle Anne D. Arcega, Yan You Gou, Lemmuel L. Tayo, Yi Hsien Lin, Sheng Lun Lin, How Ran Chao

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (non-PBDE) halogenated fire retardants (HFRs) such as new or novel brominated fire retardants (NBFRs) and dechlorane plus (DP) have been widely spread in the environment and recognized as emerging persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the recent years, mainly due to the continuous increase in their global demand, especially after the worldwide restrictions on PBDE use. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/furans (PBDD/Fs) are the unintentional byproducts of PBDE commercial formulations in the indoor environment. Although HFRs, including NBFRs, DP, and PBDD/Fs, are ubiquitous in the indoor environment due to the large-volume release from the surfaces of consumer products, only a few in vitro and in vivo studies have addressed their toxic effects. In this review article, global data on NBFRs, including decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), bis(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromophthalate (BEH-TEBP), and 2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (EH-TBB), DP, including syn-DP and anti-DP, and PBDD/Fs in indoor aerosol and dust are summarized from recent literature. Based on the gathered data, indoor dust is a major sink for indoor contamination and is of great concern due to the fact that dust ingestion is one of the primary routes for human exposure to these chemicals. Lastly, the toxic effects of NBFRs, DP, and PBDD/Fs identified in in vitro and in vivo studies are summarized and discussed based on the current published reports. However, there is still a lack of sufficient toxicity data for assessing their risks. Future works are encouraged to focus on indoor PM2.5-bound HFR levels to further evaluate their toxic effects on human health.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2047-2063
Number of pages17
JournalAerosol and Air Quality Research
Volume18
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018 Aug

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Pollution

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