Life cycle assessment of carbon footprint in public transportation - A case study of bus route no. 2 in Tainan City, Taiwan

Ching-Chih Chang, Yi Ting Liao, Yu Wei Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Human activities have exacerbated global greenhouse effects, resulting in extreme climate changes that have caused disasters and food and water shortages in recent years. Transport activities are the one of the main causes of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Therefore, policy makers must develop some strategies to reduce GHG emissions. One of the Taiwan's transportation policies intended to reduce CO2 emissions is to replace all traditional diesel fuel urban buses with alternative energy buses. This paper uses a case study of bus route NO. 2 in Tainan City and follows the international standard ISO/TS 14067 and PAS2050 to measure the carbon footprints of different energy buses. The purpose is to measure the environmental benefits of alternative energy buses. The results of the bus carbon footprints from high to low were LNG buses, 63.14g CO2e/pkm; traditional diesel buses, 54.6g CO2e/pkm; liquefied petroleum gas buses, 47.4g CO2e/pkm; plug-in electric buses, 37.82g CO2e/pkm, and hydrogen fuel cell bus es, 29.17g CO2e/pkm, respectively. It was also found that the use of hydrogen fuel cell buses would potentially reduce CO2e emissions in Tainan City by 1,244,081 tons, which at this time is only city bus No. 2. If all the Taiwan city buses were switched to hydrogen fuel cell buses, this would potentially reduce CO2e by 227,832.39 tons. The effect of the reduction in carbon emissions from the use of hydrogen fuel cells buses in all Taiwanese urban areas is the equivalent of planting 22.78 million trees. It is thus suggested that the government use hydrogen fuel cell buses as the future of the country's major alternative energy buses since they are the most environmentally friendly alternative to reducing CO2 emissions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)388-395
Number of pages8
JournalProcedia Manufacturing
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Jan 1
Event14th Global Congress on Manufacturing and Management, GCMM 2018 - Brisbane, Australia
Duration: 2018 Dec 52018 Dec 7

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence


Dive into the research topics of 'Life cycle assessment of carbon footprint in public transportation - A case study of bus route no. 2 in Tainan City, Taiwan'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this