Carboxyfullerene (C60) is known as a photosensitizer for virus inactivation. Its regioisomer with C3 symmetry, named the C3 isomer, could also inactivate the dengue-2 virus without light when the dose of C3 isomer was increased to 40 μM, indicating the possible involvement of a light-independent mechanism. Further analysis showed that the C3 isomer blocked viral replication at the attachment and penetration stages, suggesting that a direct interaction between the C3 isomer and the virion is required for inactivation. The C3 isomer with a bipolar structure showed better lipid interaction and dengue-2 virus suppression than D3, another isomer that contains evenly distributed hydrophilic side chains. Moreover, the C3 isomer selectively inactivated enveloped viruses (viz., dengue-2 virus and Japanese encephalitis virus) instead of nonenveloped viruses (viz., enterovirus 71 and coxsackievirus B3). Collectively, these findings support the hypothesis that C3 isomer suppression of enveloped viruses is effected through its hydrophobic interaction with the viral lipid envelope. Our report, which demonstrates the light-dependent and -independent mechanisms of C60 on viral inactivation, will aid in the development of novel anti-viral agents for use against enveloped viruses. (C) 2000 Academic Press.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes