Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment may affect methamphetamine (MA)-induced nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion. This study was undertaken to determine the critical time window for the protective effects of LPS treatment and the underlying mechanisms. An LPS injection (1 mg/kg) 72 h before or 2 h after MA treatment [three consecutive, subcutaneous injections of MA (10 mg/kg each) at 2-h intervals] diminished the MA-induced DA depletion in mouse striatum. Such an LPS-associated effect was independent of MA-produced hyperthermia. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 expressions were all elevated in striatal tissues following a systemic injection with LPS, indicating that peripheral LPS treatment affected striatal pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Striatal TNF-α expression was dramatically increased at 72 and 96 h after the MA treatment, while such TNF-α elevation was abolished by the LPS pretreatment protocol. Moreover, MA-produced activation of nuclear NFκB, a transcription factor following TNF-α activation, in striatum was abolished by the LPS (1 mg/kg) pretreatment. Furthermore, thalidomide, a TNF-α antagonist, treatment abolished the LPS pretreatment-associated protective effects. Pretreatment with mouse recombinant TNF-α in striatum diminished the MA-produced DA depletion. Finally, single LPS treatment caused a rapid down-regulation of dopamine transporter (DAT) in striatum. Taken together, we conclude that peripheral LPS treatment protects nigrostriatal DA neurons against MA-induced toxicity, in part, by reversing elevated TNF-α expression and subsequent signaling cascade and causing a rapid DAT down-regulation in striatum.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Psychiatry and Mental health
- Biological Psychiatry