Introduction: We aimed to clarify the effect of vein of Marshall (VOM) ethanol infusion for treating VOM triggers and/or mitral flutter after first-attempt endocardial ablation in patients with nonparoxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods and Results: Of the 254 consecutive patients (age, 56 ± 10 years; 221 male) undergoing catheter ablation for drug-refractory nonparoxysmal AF, 32 (12.6%) received VOM ethanol infusion. The patients were stratified into group 1 (pulmonary vein isolation [PVI], substrate modification, VOM ethanol infusion), group 2 (PVI, substrate modification), and group 3 (PVI alone). Propensity-matched analysis (N = 128) of long-term outcomes (3.9 ± 0.5 years) revealed a higher AF recurrence risk in group 2 (hazard ratio [HR], 4.17; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.63-10.69; P =.003) and group 3 (HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.09-3.04; P =.021) than in group 1, as well as a higher atrial arrhythmia recurrence risk in group 2 than in group 1 (HR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.16-5.03; P =.018). A higher procedural termination rate was observed in group 1 than groups 2 and 3 (41.7% vs 17.2% vs 18.8%; P =.042). On multivariate analysis, VOM ethanol injection was an independent predictor of freedom from recurrence of AF (HR, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.08-0.52; P =.001) and atrial arrhythmia (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.17-0.74; P =.005), whereas a left atrial diameter >45 mm and hypertension were independent risk factors for recurrence. Periprocedural complications rates were comparable among the groups. Conclusion: Adjunctive VOM ethanol infusion is effective and safe for treating nonparoxysmal AF in patients with VOM triggers and/or refractory mitral flutter, providing good long-term freedom from AF and atrial arrhythmia.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
- Physiology (medical)