Background: Women infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have a higher risk of contracting cervical cancer. Recent guidelines recommend that all HIV-positive women should receive two Pap smears in the first year after their HIV diagnosis. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study, and the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan was used to estimate the Pap smear screening rate for 1449 HIV-infected women aged 18 years and over from 2000 to 2010. A multiple logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV-infected women who had received Pap smears. Results: Of 1449 women, 618 (43%) women received at least one Pap smear. Only 14.7% of the HIV-infected women received Pap smears within one year after being diagnosed with HIV. A logistic regression analysis showed that the factors associated with receiving at least one Pap smear after HIV diagnosis were increasing age (AOR 1.04, 95% CI 1.03-1.05), high monthly income (AOR 1.83, 95% CI 1.51-2.23), any history of antiretroviral therapy (AOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.38-2.29), retention in HIV care (AOR 1.36, 95% CI 1.04-1.77), a history of sexually transmitted diseases (AOR 1.96, 95% CI 1.50-2.56), and any history of treatment for opportunistic infections (AOR 2.46, 95% CI 1.91-3.16). Conclusions: A great need exists to develop strategies for promoting receipt of Pap smear screening services that specifically target severely disadvantaged women with HIV, particularly younger, lower income women and those in an asymptomatic phase.
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