Lutein production from biomass: Marigold flowers versus microalgae

Jian Hao Lin, Duu Jong Lee, Jo Shu Chang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

246 Citations (Scopus)


Microalgae have faster growth rates and more free lutein than marigold flowers, the current source of lutein. However, no commercial lutein production uses microalgae. This review compares lutein content, cultivation, harvesting, cell disruption, and extraction stages of lutein production using marigold flowers and those using microalgae as feedstock. The lutein production rate of microalgae is 3-6 times higher than that of marigold flowers. To produce 1. kg of pure lutein, marigolds need more land and water, but require less nutrients (N, P, K) and less energy than microalgae. Since lutein is tightly bound in microalgae and microalgae are small, cell disruption and subsequent extraction stages consume a considerable amount of energy. Research and development of affordable lutein production from microalgae are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)421-428
Number of pages8
JournalBioresource technology
Publication statusPublished - 2015 May 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal


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