Lysosomal cysteine protease cathepsin S is involved in cancer cell motility by regulating store-operated Ca2+ entry

Hsiao Han Lin, Szu Jung Chen, Meng Ru Shen, Yi Ting Huang, Hsing Pang Hsieh, Shu Yu Lin, Chun Cheng Lin, Wun Shaing Wayne Chang, Jang Yang Chang

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Abstract

Cathepsin S (CTSS), a lysosomal cysteine protease, has been reported to be associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, thus promoting cell migration and invasion, but whether CTSS regulates other intracellular mechanisms during metastasis remains unknown. The expression of CTSS was knocked down using siRNA transfection, and enzymatic activity was inhibited by the highly-selective CTSS inhibitor RJW-58. The results of in vitro functional assays, western blot analysis, and an in vivo colonization model demonstrated that CTSS was positively related to cellular adhesive ability. Moreover, both CTSS knockdown and inhibition significantly decreased Ca2+ influx via store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) without changing STIM1 and Orai1 expression levels, while RJW-58 dose-dependently reduced the activation of the Ca2+-dependent downstream effectors, NFAT1 and Rac1. The results of immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that CTSS could bind to STIM1, which was reversed by CTSS inhibition. In addition, confocal microscopy and super-resolution imaging showed that CTSS inhibition led to STIM1 puncta accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum and reduced the interaction between active STIM1 and EB1. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the lysosomal cysteine protease, CTSS, plays an important role in mediating Ca2+ homeostasis by regulating STIM1 trafficking, which leads to the suppression of cell migration and invasion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number118517
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research
Volume1866
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019 Dec

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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