In the present study, the neuroprotective potential of magnolol against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury was examined via in vivo and in vitro experiments. Magnolol exhibited strong radical scavenging and antioxidant activity, and significantly inhibited the production of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-A and nitrite/nitrate (NOX) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 and RAW 264.7 cells when applied at concentrations of 10 and 50 μM, respectively. Magnolol (100 μM) also significantly attenuated oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced damage in neonatal rat hippocampal slice cultures, when administered up to 4 h following the insult. In a rat model of stable ischemia, compared with a vehicle-Treated ischemic control, pretreatment with magnolol (0.01-1 mg/kg, intravenously) significantly reduced brain infarction following ischemic stroke, and post-Treatment with magnolol (1 mg/kg) remained effective and significantly reduced infarction when administered 2 h following the onset of ischemia. Additionally, magnolol (0.3 and 1 mg/kg) significantly reduced the accumulation of superoxide anions at the border zones of infarction and reduced oxidative damage in the ischemic brain. This was assessed by measuring the levels of NOX, malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase, the ratio of glutathione/oxidized glutathione and the immunoreactions of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and 4-hydroxynonenal. Thus, magnolol was revealed to protect against ischemia-reperfusion brain damage. This may be partly attributed to its antioxidant, radical scavenging andanti-inflammatory effects.
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