Maternal chronic kidney disease (CKD) during pregnancy causes adverse fetal programming. Nitric oxide (NO) deficiency, gut microbiota dysbiosis, and dysregulated renin-angiotensin system (RAS) during pregnancy are linked to the development of hypertension in adult offspring. We examined whether maternal adenine-induced CKD can program hypertension and kidney disease in adult male offspring. We also aimed to identify potential mechanisms, including alterations of gut microbiota composition, increased trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), reduced NO bioavailability, and dysregulation of the RAS. To construct a maternal CKD model, female Sprague-Dawley rats received regular chow (control group) or chow supplemented with 0.5% adenine (CKD group) for 3 weeks before pregnancy. Mother rats were sacrificed on gestational day 21 to analyze placentas and fetuses. Male offspring (n = 8/group) were sacrificed at 12 weeks of age. Adenine-fed rats developed renal dysfunction, glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage, hypertension, placental abnormalities, and reduced fetal weights. Additionally, maternal adenine-induced CKD caused hypertension and renal hypertrophy in adult male offspring. These adverse pregnancy and offspring outcomes are associated with alterations of gut microbiota composition, increased uremic toxin asymmetric and symmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA and SDMA), increased microbiota-derived uremic toxin TMAO, reduced microbiota-derived metabolite acetate and butyrate levels, and dysregulation of the intrarenal RAS. Our results indicated that adenine-induced maternal CKD could be an appropriate model for studying uremia-related adverse pregnancy and offspring outcomes. Targeting NO pathway, microbiota metabolite TMAO, and the RAS might be potential therapeutic strategies to improve maternal CKD-induced adverse pregnancy and offspring outcomes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Computer Science Applications
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry
- Inorganic Chemistry