Menopause is associated with self-reported poor sleep quality in women without vasomotor symptoms

Hao Chang Hung, Feng Hwa Lu, Horng Yih Ou, Jin Shang Wu, Yi Ching Yang, Chih Jen Chang

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27 Citations (Scopus)


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between menopause and self-reported sleep quality in Chinese women without vasomotor symptoms. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from a decoded database of the National Cheng Kung University Hospital. Menopause was defined as absence of menses for at least 12 months or a history of hysterectomy and oophorectomy. Self-reported sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher global PSQI score indicates poorer self-reported sleep quality, and a global PSQI score greater than 5 differentiates poor sleepers from good sleepers. RESULTS: Of the 1,088 women recruited, 353 (32.4%) were in postmenopause status. Postmenopausal women had higher mean (SD) global PSQI scores (8.0 [3.3] vs 6.1 [2.2], P < 0.001) and a greater prevalence of poor sleepers (73.1% vs 60.8%, P < 0.001) compared with premenopausal women. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that menopause (β = 1.532; 95% CI, 1.135 to 1.949; P < 0.001) and snoring (β = 0.764; 95% CI, 0.299 to 1.228; P = 0.001) were positively associated with global PSQI scores, whereas long sleep duration (β = -0.791; 95% CI, -1.113 to -0.468; P < 0.001) was negatively associated with global PSQI scores. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that menopause (odds ratio, 1.453; 95% CI, 1.030 to 2.051; P < 0.05), long sleep duration (odds ratio, 0.545; 95% CI, 0.418 to 0.710; P < 0.001), and snoring (odds ratio, 2.022; 95% CI, 1.312 to 3.116; P = 0.001) were independent predictors of poor sleepers. CONCLUSIONS: Postmenopausal women without vasomotor symptoms have significantly higher global PSQI scores and a higher risk of being poor sleepers than premenopausal women. In addition, menopause and snoring are associated with an increased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality independently of cardiometabolic factors and lifestyle, whereas long sleep duration is associated with a decreased risk of poor self-reported sleep quality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)834-839
Number of pages6
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2014 Aug

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Obstetrics and Gynaecology


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