Meta-Analysis of the Factor Structures of the Beck Depression Inventory–II

Chiungjung Huang, Jyun Hong Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Citations (Scopus)


Two meta-analyses examined the factor structure of the Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II). Study 1, which meta-analyzed 51 studies comprising 62 samples (N = 20,475) providing pattern matrices, determined that the two-factor solution comprising Cognitive and Somatic-Affective factors was supported for the full sample. The two-factor solution was also supported for subgroups of studies. As the factor structure varied somewhat between subgroups of studies, the strength of relationships between scale items and their underlying depressive symptoms varied. Hence, comparisons of mean BDI-II scores across subgroups can be misleading. Study 2 meta-analyzed 13 studies consisting of 16 samples (N = 5,128) providing covariance matrices among the 21 BDI-II items. The two-factor solution was again supported in Study 2. Nevertheless, the existence of a general depression factor was supported by the good fit of the one-factor model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-472
Number of pages14
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Aug 21

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


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