Methylene blue-mediated photodynamic inactivation as a novel disinfectant of enterovirus 71

Tak Wah Wong, Hsuan Jung Huang, Ya Fang Wang, Yi Ping Lee, Chien Chun Huang, Chun Keung Yu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: We tested whether methylene blue, an inexpensive and safe photosensitizer, is feasible for photodynamic inactivation of enterovirus 71 (EV71) in the environment. Methods: By escalating light doses and photosensitizer concentrations, photoinactivation of EV71 and other enteroviruses was examined in vitro. Viral transmission in the environment was simulated with a neonatal mouse model in vivo. Possible mechanisms were analysed with alterations of viral DNA and proteins after treatments. Results: Photodynamic inactivation of EV71 in suspensions occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The optimal condition for photoinactivating EV71 required a light dose of 200 J/cm2 in the presence of methylene blue. This photodynamic condition was also able to inactivate other enteroviruses, including poliovirus 1 and coxsackieviruses A2, A3, A16 and B3. In an imitation environment, EV71 spread on a solid surface was inactivated by methylene blue-mediated photodynamic inactivation and prevented EV71 transmission to mice. Western blot and RT-PCR analysis indicated that both the viral proteins and the genome were disrupted after photodynamic inactivation. Conclusions: Methylene blue-mediated photodynamic inactivation may provide a novel way to eliminate environmentally contaminated sources of EV71 to prevent infection.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberdkq301
Pages (from-to)2176-2182
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2010 Aug 18

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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