Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) (formerly, early mortality syndrome) is a high-mortality-rate shrimp disease prevalent in shrimp farming areas. Although AHPND is known to be caused by pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus hosting the plasmid-related PirABvp toxin gene, the effects of disturbances in microbiome have not yet been studied. We took 62 samples from a grow-out pond during an AHPND developing period from Days 23 to 37 after stocking white postlarvae shrimp and sequenced the 16S rRNA genes with Illumina sequencing technology. The microbiomes of pond seawater and shrimp stomachs underwent varied dynamic succession during the period. Despite copies of PirABvp, principal co-ordinates analysis revealed two distinctive stages of change in stomach microbiomes associated with AHPND. AHPND markedly changed the bacterial diversity in the stomachs; it decreased the Shannon index by 53.6% within approximately 7 days, shifted the microbiome with Vibrio and Candidatus Bacilloplasma as predominant populations, and altered the species-to-species connectivity and complexity of the interaction network. The AHPND-causing Vibrio species were predicted to develop a co-occurrence pattern with several resident and transit members within Candidatus Bacilloplasma and Cyanobacteria. This study's insights into microbiome dynamics during AHPND infection can be valuable for minimising this disease in shrimp farming ponds.
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