Microbiota and Mycobiota of Soy Sauce-Supplied Lactic Acid Bacteria Treated with High Pressure

Chiung Yu Lai, Chih Yao Hou, Pei Ting Chuang, Wei Hsuan Hsu, She Ching Wu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Ethyl carbamate (EC), a byproduct that naturally forms in fermented foods, can cause tumors and cell death and is classified as a probable human carcinogen (Group 2A). EC is naturally formed through the alcoholysis reaction between ethanol and carbamyl compounds. The major precursors and dominantly emerging stages of EC differ with disparate food types, including soy sauce. This work aimed to clarify the formation of EC and its influence factors throughout the soy sauce production process with or without high-pressure process (HPP) treatment. Methods: Tetragenococcus halophilus, Pediococcus acidilactici, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, and Candida versatilis were added to soy sauce. The levels of citrulline and EC were measured, and a 16S and ITS assay investigated the microbiota. Results: L-citrulline production was found in each group after fermentation for one month. In addition, L-citrulline levels were generated the most in group D (500 MPa treated raw soy sauce with 12% saltwater and mixed fermentation bacteria, including T. halophilus, P. acidilactici, Z. rouxii, and C. versatilis) and group E (soy sauce fermentation with 12% saltwater without HPP treatment) compared to group F (soy sauce fermentation with 18% saltwater without HPP treatment). Conclusions: These results indicated that salt concentration and mixed fermentation bacteria (T. halophilus, P. acidilactici, Z. rouxii, C. versatilis) might not be major factors for L-citrulline production.

Original languageEnglish
Article number338
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 2022 Jul

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Food Science
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Plant Science


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