Microstructure of polycrystalline CuInSe2/Cd(Zn)S heterojunction solar cells

J. S. Chen, E. Kolawa, C. M. Garland, M. A. Nicolet, R. P. Ruiz

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23 Citations (Scopus)


Polycrystalline CuInSe2/Cd(Zn)S heterojunction solar cells deposited on Corning 7059 or soda-lime glass are characterized structurally and chemically by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with energy-dispersive analysis of X-rays. Scanning electron micrographs reveal rough and uneven surfaces and cross-sectional morphologies of the Cd(Zn)S and CuInSe2 layers. The crystallography and defect structure of the individual Cd(Zn)S, CuInSe2 and molybdenum layers are examined by conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The crystal structures for Cd(Zn)S, CuInSe2 and molybdenum are wurtzite, chalcopyrite and b.c.c. respectively. The Cd(Zn)S layer exhibits stacking faults on hexagonal basal planes. Planar defects such as twins and stacking faults on {112}chalcopyrite planes are identified in the CuInSe2 layer. The most significant features obtained from these cross-sections are (i) the lateral non-uniformity of the Cd(Zn)S and CuInSe2 layers, (ii) the intimate bonding between these two layers, and an epitaxial relationship between grains of Cd(Zn)S and CuInSe2 at the interface ({0001}Cd(Zn)S ∥ {112}CuInSe2), and (iii) the presence of voids and fractures in the CuInSe2 layer. A correlation between the formation of fractures and voids and the defect structure in CuInSe2 layer, and the mechanical stresses induced by differential thermal contraction of the substrate/film assembly is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)183-192
Number of pages10
JournalThin Solid Films
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - 1992 Oct 30

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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