We conducted an in vivo study with the mouse model of Vibrio vulnificus infection to evaluate the efficacies of therapy with minocycline or cefotaxime alone and in combination. V. vulnificus was introduced subcutaneously into the area over the right thigh. The inoculum size ranged from 1.0 x 103 to 1.2 x 108 CFU from experiment to experiment but was constant for all animals in the same experiment. Antibiotics were given intraperitoneally 2 h after the bacteria were inoculated. In experiments 1 to 4, the standard dose for humans was used to treat the infection, while in experiment 5, five times the standard dose for humans was used to treat the infection in experiment 1, with a small inoculum of 5 x 103 CFU, all mice in the saline-treated control group and the cefotaxime-, minocycline-, and combined antibiotic-treated groups survived. In experiment 2, with a moderate inoculum of 1.2 x 105 CFU, all the mice in the three antibiotic-treated groups survived, while only two of nine mice in the control group survived. In experiment 3, with a large inoculum of 8.0 x 107 CFU, six of nine mice in the combined antibiotic-treated group survived, while only one of nine mice in the cefotaxime-treated group and none of the mice in the control and minocycline-treated groups survived. In experiment 4, with a large inoculum of 1.2 x 108 CFU, 8 of 20 mice in the combined antibiotic-treated group survived, while none of the 20 mice in the control group, the group treated with cefotaxime alone, and the group treated with minocycline alone survived. In experiment 5, in which mice were infected with a large inoculum of 6.6 x 107 CFU and treated with five times the standard human dose of antibiotics, 10 of 12 mice in the combined antibiotic-treated group survived, while only 4 of 12 mice in the minocycline-treated group, 1 of 12 mice in the cefotaxime- treated group, and none of the mice in the control group survived. In experiments 3 to 5, the difference in the survival rates between the combined antibiotic-treated and minocycline-treated groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). These results indicate that combination therapy with cefotaxime and minocycline is distinctly more advantageous than therapy with the single antibiotic regimen for the treatment of severe experimental V. vulnificus infections.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases