According to geological history, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo formed at different times and were once connected during Quaternary glaciations. To determine how this history has influenced phylogeography, our study examined the population genetic structure of the tropical freshwater gastropod Melanoides tuberculata across Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo using the sequences from mitochondrial DNA 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase subunit I genes (1168 bp). In total, 104 specimens were collected from seventeen populations. All mtDNA haplotypes were identified as belonging to two highly divergent lineages, and these lineages were almost allopatric in their distributions. Our study found that the freshwater fauna in Malaysia might be divided into four regions: northeast Peninsular Malaysia, northwest Peninsular Malaysia, south Peninsular Malaysia, and Borneo. The phylogeography of M. tuberculata in Malaysia was shaped by the landforms of Peninsular Malaysia and by the paleo-river systems in the Sunda continental shelf. In addition, our study found that these two lineages in Malaysia have invaded the globe. These results suggest that Malaysia is located in important shipping lanes throughout the world, and the populations of M. tuberculate might be widely distributed throughout the world by shipping.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
- Molecular Biology