This chapter introduces the historic development as well as the latest progress of mobile mapping systems. First, mobile mapping technologies, including the introduction of positioning and mapping sensors, and how they can be integrated together, are briefly reviewed. Then the development of land-based, aerial, marine, and mobile portable mapping platforms is presented. The latest progress in mobile-mapping technologies is further discussed, along with sensor fusion schemes, seamless indoor and outdoor mapping strategies, and disaster response applications. In addition, this chapter explores future and potential applications, such as high-definition (HD) maps and autonomous mapping with autonomous systems.