OBJECTIVE: Several studies have demonstrated increased postoperative mortality rates in patients on chronic hemodialysis compared with non-dialyzed patients. However, limited studies have examined factors that may contribute to postoperative mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, data were collected from 9,140 dialysis and 45,725 non-dialysis patients undergoing surgery between 2007 to 2009 from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Registry Database. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and anesthesia duration were used to compare 30-day postoperative mortality differences in dialysis patients. RESULTS: Dialysis patients undergoing first-time surgery were significantly older, more likely male, and possessed more comorbidities. Overall, dialysis patients had significantly higher all-cause postoperative mortality (odds ratio, 15.005; 95% confidence interval, 11.917-18.893). Gender (hazard ratio [HR], 0.762), age (HR, 1.012), longer duration of inhalation general anesthesia (HR, 1.113), and comorbidities of hypertension (HR, 0.759), diabetes (HR, 1.339), congestive heart failure (HR, 1.232), coronary artery disease (HR, 1.326), cerebral vascular accident (HR, 1.312), intracranial hemorrhage (HR, 6.765), gastrointestinal bleeding (HR, 1.396), and liver cirrhosis (HR, 2.027), independently increased postoperative mortality risk in dialysis patients. Of the comorbidities, intracranial hemorrhage posed the greatest risk. CONCLUSION: Patient demographics, anesthesia factors, and comorbidities help dialysis patients understand their postoperative mortality. These potential risk factors also inform anesthesiologists and surgeons weight perioperative conditions in dialysis patients before surgery.
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