Cellular behaviour is controlled by numerous processes, including intracellular signalling pathways that are triggered by the binding of ligands with cell surface receptors. Multivalent ligands have multiple copies of a recognition element that binds to receptors and influences downstream signals. Nanoparticle-ligand complexes may form multivalent structures to crosslink receptors with high avidity and specificity. After conjugation of galectin-1 onto gold nanoparticles, the resulting nanogold-galectin-1 (Au-Gal1) bound with higher affinity to Jurkat cells to promote CD45 clustering and inhibition of its phosphatase activity, resulting in enhancement of apoptosis via caspase-dependent pathways. Au-Gal1 injected intra-articularly into rats with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) promoted apoptosis of CD4+ T cells and reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in the ankle joints as well as ameliorated clinical symptoms of arthritis. These observed therapeutic effects indicate that the multivalent structure of nanoparticle-ligands can regulate the distribution of cell surface receptors and subsequent intracellular signalling, and this may provide new insights into nanoparticle applications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Cell Biology