The trichorhinophalangeal syndromes (TRPSs) are rare hereditary diseases with mainly autosomal dominant inheritance. Three different forms sharing similar clinical features with heterogeneous mutations have been identified: type I (TRPS I), type II (TRPS II) and type III (TRPS III). These syndromes have characteristic facial abnormalities such as sparse and slow-growing scalp hair, laterally sparse eyebrows, bulbous pear-shaped nose, elongated and flat philtrum, thin upper lip, and protruding ears. Various skeletal abnormalities are also frequently noted: short stature, shortening of the phalanges and metacarpals, cone-shaped epiphyses and Perthes-like change of the hips. 1-4 The TRPS1 gene was first identified in 2000 and mapped to 8q24.1.1 More than 50 mutations have been found in the gene to date. We here report mutation analysis of eight patients with the typical phenotype of TRPS I, revealing five novel mutations.
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