Purpose: For people with metabolic syndrome (MetS), altering the macronutrient composition of their diets might ameliorate metabolic abnormalities. The common method of clinical assessment only measures total lipid concentrations but ignores the individual species that contribute to these total concentrations. Thus, to predict the amelioration of MetS following caloric restriction (CR) and the intake of fish oil, we used lipidomics to investigate changes in plasma lipids and identify potential lipid metabolites. Methods: Lipidomics was performed using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry on plasma samples from a clinical trial conducted over 12 weeks. Subjects were randomized into two groups: CR (n = 12) and CR with fish oil (CRF, n = 9). Anthropometric and clinical parameters were measured and correlated with plasma lipidomics data. Results: Compared with baseline, significant differences were observed in body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and interleukin-6 in both groups, but triglyceride (TG) levels significantly decreased in only the CRF group (all p ' 0.05). A total of 138 lipid species were identified. Levels of species containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids were significantly elevated—greater than twofold—following fish oil intake, these included TG (60:9) and phosphatidylcholine (p40:6) (all q ' 0.05). TG (60:9) tended to correlate negatively with body weight, body mass index, blood pressure, and HbA1c following fish oil intake. Conclusion: CR and fish oil can ameliorate MetS features, including anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and blood lipid concentrations. The levels of particular lipid species such as TG-containing docosapentaenoic acid were elevated post-intervention and negatively associated with MetS features. TG (60:9) may be proposed as a lipid metabolite to predict amelioration in MetS following the intake of CR and fish oil.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Nutrition and Dietetics