Nano-scale carbon onions produced by laser photolysis of toluene for detection of optical, humidity, acetone, methanol and ethanol stimuli

Baban P. Dhonge, David E. Motaung, Chuan-Pu Liu, Yi Chang Li, Bonex W. Mwakikunga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract Laser liquid medium pyrolysis (LLMP) process has been used to deposit an onion like carbon (OLC) hierarchical structure using toluene as carbon source at various laser power density settings of 2.54, 6.62 and 9.17 W/cm2 on Si (1 0 0). The coin tower structure of carbon deposits was observed for 2.54 W/cm2 and the wheat flower structure consists of OLC for 6.62 and 9.17 W/cm2 of laser power. The formation of OLC hierarchical structure deposition has been confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopic studies. The mechanism of OLC hierarchical structure formation has been discussed. The gas sensing station incorporated with flat heater has been established to sense the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) e.g. methanol, ethanol and acetone at room temperature (25 C) and 32% of relative humidity (RH). A good linear relationship between sensitivity and VOCs concentration has been observed in the range of 34-148 ppm. The selectivity of OLC device to alcohol (20.5) is found to be double as compared to acetone (10). The p- to n-type semiconductor transition of the OLC has been observed with the increasing Relative Humidity (RH). The OLCs response to the light reveals photoelectric effect and the conduction is found to be incident photon wavelength dependence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number18226
Pages (from-to)30-38
Number of pages9
JournalSensors and Actuators, B: Chemical
Volume215
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Aug 1

Fingerprint

Photolysis
Toluene
Acetone
stimuli
acetone
Methanol
photolysis
toluene
humidity
Atmospheric humidity
Ethanol
ethyl alcohol
Carbon
methyl alcohol
Lasers
carbon
lasers
volatile organic compounds
Volatile organic compounds
Liquid lasers

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Instrumentation
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

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title = "Nano-scale carbon onions produced by laser photolysis of toluene for detection of optical, humidity, acetone, methanol and ethanol stimuli",
abstract = "Abstract Laser liquid medium pyrolysis (LLMP) process has been used to deposit an onion like carbon (OLC) hierarchical structure using toluene as carbon source at various laser power density settings of 2.54, 6.62 and 9.17 W/cm2 on Si (1 0 0). The coin tower structure of carbon deposits was observed for 2.54 W/cm2 and the wheat flower structure consists of OLC for 6.62 and 9.17 W/cm2 of laser power. The formation of OLC hierarchical structure deposition has been confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopic studies. The mechanism of OLC hierarchical structure formation has been discussed. The gas sensing station incorporated with flat heater has been established to sense the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) e.g. methanol, ethanol and acetone at room temperature (25 C) and 32{\%} of relative humidity (RH). A good linear relationship between sensitivity and VOCs concentration has been observed in the range of 34-148 ppm. The selectivity of OLC device to alcohol (20.5) is found to be double as compared to acetone (10). The p- to n-type semiconductor transition of the OLC has been observed with the increasing Relative Humidity (RH). The OLCs response to the light reveals photoelectric effect and the conduction is found to be incident photon wavelength dependence.",
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Nano-scale carbon onions produced by laser photolysis of toluene for detection of optical, humidity, acetone, methanol and ethanol stimuli. / Dhonge, Baban P.; Motaung, David E.; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Li, Yi Chang; Mwakikunga, Bonex W.

In: Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, Vol. 215, 18226, 01.08.2015, p. 30-38.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nano-scale carbon onions produced by laser photolysis of toluene for detection of optical, humidity, acetone, methanol and ethanol stimuli

AU - Dhonge, Baban P.

AU - Motaung, David E.

AU - Liu, Chuan-Pu

AU - Li, Yi Chang

AU - Mwakikunga, Bonex W.

PY - 2015/8/1

Y1 - 2015/8/1

N2 - Abstract Laser liquid medium pyrolysis (LLMP) process has been used to deposit an onion like carbon (OLC) hierarchical structure using toluene as carbon source at various laser power density settings of 2.54, 6.62 and 9.17 W/cm2 on Si (1 0 0). The coin tower structure of carbon deposits was observed for 2.54 W/cm2 and the wheat flower structure consists of OLC for 6.62 and 9.17 W/cm2 of laser power. The formation of OLC hierarchical structure deposition has been confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopic studies. The mechanism of OLC hierarchical structure formation has been discussed. The gas sensing station incorporated with flat heater has been established to sense the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) e.g. methanol, ethanol and acetone at room temperature (25 C) and 32% of relative humidity (RH). A good linear relationship between sensitivity and VOCs concentration has been observed in the range of 34-148 ppm. The selectivity of OLC device to alcohol (20.5) is found to be double as compared to acetone (10). The p- to n-type semiconductor transition of the OLC has been observed with the increasing Relative Humidity (RH). The OLCs response to the light reveals photoelectric effect and the conduction is found to be incident photon wavelength dependence.

AB - Abstract Laser liquid medium pyrolysis (LLMP) process has been used to deposit an onion like carbon (OLC) hierarchical structure using toluene as carbon source at various laser power density settings of 2.54, 6.62 and 9.17 W/cm2 on Si (1 0 0). The coin tower structure of carbon deposits was observed for 2.54 W/cm2 and the wheat flower structure consists of OLC for 6.62 and 9.17 W/cm2 of laser power. The formation of OLC hierarchical structure deposition has been confirmed using Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy and Raman Spectroscopic studies. The mechanism of OLC hierarchical structure formation has been discussed. The gas sensing station incorporated with flat heater has been established to sense the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) e.g. methanol, ethanol and acetone at room temperature (25 C) and 32% of relative humidity (RH). A good linear relationship between sensitivity and VOCs concentration has been observed in the range of 34-148 ppm. The selectivity of OLC device to alcohol (20.5) is found to be double as compared to acetone (10). The p- to n-type semiconductor transition of the OLC has been observed with the increasing Relative Humidity (RH). The OLCs response to the light reveals photoelectric effect and the conduction is found to be incident photon wavelength dependence.

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