The presentation will discuss the mission and findings of our MARCO Focus Center on Functional Engineered Nano Architectonics (FENA) and the Western Institute of Nanoelectronics (WIN). In the Center and the Institute funded by SIA, we explore different logic state variables, such as the use of particle spin, molecular conformation and others in addition to today's charge based electronics, for resolving the most critical bottleneck - power dissipation towards to ultimate scaled CMOS and beyond. We investigate many different functional nanomaterials as building blocks and self assembly techniques as alternate fabrication methods for nanostructures and their integration. Examples of fabricating molecular structures, carbon nanotubes (CNT), and nano polymer wires, and their assembly using, for example, DNA and PNA conjugation will be discussed for device and circuit applications. Likewise, oxide spintronic wires and dilute magnetic nanostructures for potential new power efficient devices will also be highlighted. The work suggests the possibility of integrating a variety of these nano building blocks on a common platform, and further constructing future heterogeneous integrated nanosystems with potential new manufacturing methods. Towards these nanoelectronics systems, variability issues in device characteristics and in manufacturing tolerance demand the development of "nanometrology" and control tools sensitive to single atoms and molecules. An example of using a single wall CNT FET to study single interface defect and a single molecule in terms of fluctuation, or more specifically random telegraph signal will be demonstrated.