Since the first clinical cancer treatment in 1978, photodynamic therapy (PDT) technologies have been largely improved and approved for clinical usage in various cancers. Due to the oxygen-dependent nature, the application of PDT is still limited by hypoxia in tumor tissues. Thus, the development of effective strategies for manipulating hypoxia and improving the effectiveness of PDT is one of the most important area in PDT field. Recently, emerging nanotechnology has benefitted progress in many areas, including PDT. In this review, after briefly introducing the mechanisms of PDT and hypoxia, as well as basic knowledge about nanomedicines, we will discuss the state of the art of nanomedicine-based approaches for assisting PDT for treating hypoxic tumors, mainly based on oxygen replenishing strategies and the oxygen dependency diminishing strategies. Among these strategies, we will emphasize emerging trends about the use of nanoscale metal–organic framework (nMOF) materials and the combination of PDT with immunotherapy. We further discuss future perspectives and challenges associated with these trends in both the aspects of mechanism and clinical translation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)