Bone implants with surface modifications that promote the physiological activities of osteoblasts are the first step for osseointegration in bone repair. Hydroxyapatite is the main inorganic component in mammal bones and teeth, and nanoscaled hydroxyapatite promotes the adhesion of osteoblastic cells. In this study, we created a nano/micro hierarchical structure using micro-arc oxidation coatings and hydrothermal treatments at 150 °C, 175 °C, and 200 °C for 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. After undergoing hydrothermal treatment for 24 h, CaTiO3 began forming regular-shaped crystals at the surface at 175 °C. In order to decrease the CaTiO3 formations and increase the apatite fabrication, a shorter time of hydrothermal treatment was required at 175 °C. There was still surface damage on samples treated for 6 h at 175 °C; however, the nano/micro hierarchical structures were formed in 2 h at 175 °C. The normalized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities of the MC3T3-E1 cells with micro-arc oxidation (MAO) coatings and nano/micro hierarchical bioceramics coatings were 4.51 ± 0.26 and 7.36 ± 0.51 μmol p-NP/mg protein (P value of <0.001), respectively. The MC3T3-E1 cells with coatings showed highly statistically significant results in terms of the ALP activity. This proposed nano/micro hierarchical structure promoted cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of the osteoblast MC3T3-E1 cells. This study realized a promising nano system for osseointegration via bone implant surface treatments, which can promote the physiological activities of osteoblasts.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Materials Science(all)