Neurofibromas may arise anywhere along a nerve from the dorsal root ganglion to the terminal nerve branches; however, peroneal nerve involvement is not common. Surgical resection of neurofibroma with total preservation of nerve function had been thought to be difficult. Here, we report a case of an intermuscular intraneural neurofibroma derived from the deep peroneal nerve in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1. The diagnostic criteria, characteristics of imaging studies, and operative approach are described. The function of the deep peroneal nerve was preserved, with satisfactory results.
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