A new polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) structure based on a thermal light source is developed for the simultaneous measurement of the thickness, mean refractive index, apparent phase retardation and optical axis orientation of a linear birefringent material. Having measured these parameters, the extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices can then be accurately extracted. The structure has no requirement for a high-precision scanning stage or controller and has an enhanced axial resolution. The measured data are in good agreements with the theoretical ones. The more error could be found in 3.96% in apparent phase retardation due to the dispersion effects from the broadband source. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the proposed structure is the first system capable of simultaneously measuring all of the optical parameters of a linear birefringent material.