Nicotinamide Deteriorates Post-Stroke Immunodepression Following Cerebral Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury in Mice

Shih-Huang Tai, Liang Chun Chao, Sheng Yang Huang, Hsiao Wen Lin, Ai Hua Lee, Yi Yun Chen, E. Jian Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


(1) Background: Inducing experimental stroke leads to biphasic immune responses, where the early activation of immune functions is followed by severe immunosuppression accompanied by spleen and thymus atrophy. Nicotinamide, a water-soluble B-group vitamin, is a known neuroprotectant against brain ischemia in animal models. We examined the effect of nicotinamide on the central and peripheral immune response in experimental stroke models. (2) Methods: Nicotinamide (500 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously administered to C57BL/6 mice during reperfusion after transiently occluding the middle cerebral artery or after LPS injection. On day 3, the animals were examined for behavioral performance and were then sacrificed to assess brain infarction, blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity, and the composition of immune cells in the brain, thymus, spleen, and blood using flow cytometry. (3) Results: Nicotinamide reduced brain infarction and microglia/macrophage activation following MCAo (p < 0.05). Similarly, in LPS-injected mice, microglia/macrophage activation was decreased upon treatment with nicotinamide (p < 0.05), suggesting a direct inhibitory effect of nicotinamide on microglia/macrophage activation. Nicotinamide decreased the infiltration of neutrophils into the brain parenchyma and ameliorated Evans blue leakage (p < 0.05), suggesting that a decreased infiltration of neutrophils could, at least partially, be the result of a more integrated BBB structure following nicotinamide treatment. Our studies also revealed that administering nicotinamide led to retarded B-cell maturation in the spleen and subsequently decreased circulating B cells in the thymus and bloodstream (p < 0.05). (4) Conclusions: Cumulatively, nicotinamide decreased brain inflammation caused by ischemia–reperfusion injury, which was mediated by a direct anti-inflammatory effect of nicotinamide and an indirect protective effect on BBB integrity. Administering nicotinamide following brain ischemia resulted in a decrease in circulating B cells. This warrants attention with respect to future clinical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2145
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Aug

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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