Freshwater demand is rising worldwide due to largely increasing population and industrialization. Latest focus is to explore the Ocean and saline effluent from industries to produce freshwater in a sustainable way via algal desalination. Current physicochemical desalination technology is not only an energy-intensive and expensive process but also gives severe environmental impact from brine and GHGs emissions. Therefore, it is neither environmentally-friendly nor feasible to countries with limited resources. Biodesalination could be an attractive technology with recent breakthroughs in algal bioprocess with fast growth rate under highly saline conditions to effectively remove salts optimally 50–67% from saline water. Algal desalination mainly occurs through biosorption and bioaccumulation which governs by biotic and abiotic factors e.g., strain, temperature, pH, light and nutrients etc. This review provides a current scenario of this novel technology by an in-depth assessment of technological advancement, social impact, possible risks and scope for policy implications.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Waste Management and Disposal