Novel metal peroxide nanoboxes restrain Clostridioides difficile infection beyond the bactericidal and sporicidal activity

Li Xing Yang, Yi Hsin Lai, Chun In Cheung, Zhi Ye, Tzu Chi Huang, Yu Chin Wang, Yu Cheng Chin, Zi Chun Chia, Ya Jyun Chen, Meng Jia Li, Hsiu Ying Tseng, Yi Tseng Tsai, Zhi Bin Zhang, Kuan Hsu Chen, Bo Yang Tsai, Dar Bin Shieh, Nan Yao Lee, Pei Jane Tsai, Chih Chia Huang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Clostridioides difficile spores are considered as the major source responsible for the development of C. difficile infection (CDI), which is associated with an increased risk of death in patients and has become an important issue in infection control of nosocomial infections. Current treatment against CDI still relies on antibiotics, which also damage normal flora and increase the risk of CDI recurrence. Therefore, alternative therapies that are more effective against C. difficile bacteria and spores are urgently needed. Here, we designed an oxidation process using H2O2 containing PBS solution to generate Cl and peroxide molecules that further process Ag and Au ions to form nanoboxes with Ag–Au peroxide coat covering Au shell and AgCl core (AgAu-based nanoboxes). The AgAu-based nanoboxes efficiently disrupted the membrane structure of bacteria/spores of C. difficile after 30–45 min exposure to the highly reactive Ag/Au peroxide surface of the nano structures. The Au-enclosed AgCl provided sustained suppression of the growth of 2 × 107 pathogenic Escherichia coli for up to 19 days. In a fecal bench ex vivo test and in vivo CDI murine model, biocompatibility and therapeutic efficacy of the AuAg nanoboxes to attenuate CDI was demonstrated by restoring the gut microbiota and colon mucosal structure. The treatment successfully rescued the CDI mice from death and prevented their recurrence mediated by vancomycin treatment. The significant outcomes indicated that the new peroxide-derived AgAu-based nanoboxes possess great potential for future translation into clinical application as a new alternative therapeutic strategy against CDI.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere10593
JournalBioengineering and Translational Medicine
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Nov

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Pharmaceutical Science


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