With the advent of echocardiography, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) can be readily diagnosed without much difficulty. However, noninvasive detection of the presence of pulmonary venous obstruction in TAPVC remains a difficult issue. During a 5.5-year period, 42 patients were found to have TAPVC by catheterization, surgery, and/or autopsy: 17 had supracardiac drainage, 13 paracardiac drainage, nine infracardiac drain-age, and three mixed drainage. Obstruction to pulmonary venous drainage was found in 24 patients (57%). Patients with right isomerism tended to have a higher incidence of pulmonary venous obstruction than those with the usual atrial arrangement (80% vs. 44%, p<0.05). Color Doppler combined with cross-sectional echocardiography provided accurate delineation of drainage sites in 93% cases (39 of 42). Among the 39 cases with correct echocardiographic delineation of the drainage site, obstruction was detected by echocardiography in 22 cases with a sensitivity of 100% (22 of 22) and a specificity of 85% (17 of 20). Therefore, complete echocardiography, including cross-sectional images and color Doppler proved to be a reliable tool in the detection of drainage sites and pulmonary venous obstruction in TAPVC.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine