Occurrence and removal of earthy-musty odorants in two waterworks in Kinmen Island, Taiwan

Wen Hsing Hsieh, De Wei Chang, Tsair-Fuh Lin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In this study, the occurrence and treatment of two earthy-musty odorants, geosmin and 2-MIB, produced by cyanobacteria is investigated at two conventional drinking-water treatment plants (WTPs) at Kinmen Island, Taiwan. Samples of the source, processed, and finished waters and tap water at the two WTPs were collected and analyzed. Both geosmin and 2-MIB were commonly detected in most water samples, with the 2-MIB concentration much higher than the geosmin concentration. About 78% of the source water samples and 35% of the finished and tap water samples showed detected 2-MIB levels higher than the odor threshold concentration (OTC, ~10 ng/L). Sampling and analysis of the reservoir water indicated that 2-MIB is uniformly distributed in the reservoir, with ~70% of which existing in the dissolved phase. The chlorination study of the raw water indicates that both geosmin and 2-MIB are resistant to chlorine. However, the cyanobacterial cells in raw water were effectively ruptured within15 min of the contact time when a chlorine dosage of 6.4 mg/L was applied at the WTPs. A monitoring of the processed water at WTPs shows that the flotation process is most effective to the removal of cyanobacteria, with about 77-79% efficiency, compared to ~99.4% achieved with the whole treatment train. Removal of 2-MIB by the treatment processes before flotation was only about 17-28%, which may be limited to the low ratio of cell-bound 2-MIB. The two sand filtration processes removed 23-47% of 2-MIB, due probably to the biological degradation of dissolved 2-MIB. For the two WTP studied, the removal of 2-MIB was about 74%. It is shown that 2-MIB is a major odorant in the drinking water source and the finished water at Kinmen Island. The current processes are not sufficient to remove 2-MIB to a level below the OTC. Advanced processes are needed to effectively remove the odorant.

Original languageEnglish
Article number04014012
JournalJournal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste
Volume18
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Jul 1

Fingerprint

Waterworks
Water treatment plants
Water
water
Chlorine
chlorine
cyanobacterium
Flotation
Potable water
Drinking Water
chlorination
waterworks
removal
odor
train
Chlorination
Odors
drinking water
water treatment plant
Sand

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
  • Waste Management and Disposal

Cite this

@article{dd5022052ab9440781d0e7b702e46130,
title = "Occurrence and removal of earthy-musty odorants in two waterworks in Kinmen Island, Taiwan",
abstract = "In this study, the occurrence and treatment of two earthy-musty odorants, geosmin and 2-MIB, produced by cyanobacteria is investigated at two conventional drinking-water treatment plants (WTPs) at Kinmen Island, Taiwan. Samples of the source, processed, and finished waters and tap water at the two WTPs were collected and analyzed. Both geosmin and 2-MIB were commonly detected in most water samples, with the 2-MIB concentration much higher than the geosmin concentration. About 78{\%} of the source water samples and 35{\%} of the finished and tap water samples showed detected 2-MIB levels higher than the odor threshold concentration (OTC, ~10 ng/L). Sampling and analysis of the reservoir water indicated that 2-MIB is uniformly distributed in the reservoir, with ~70{\%} of which existing in the dissolved phase. The chlorination study of the raw water indicates that both geosmin and 2-MIB are resistant to chlorine. However, the cyanobacterial cells in raw water were effectively ruptured within15 min of the contact time when a chlorine dosage of 6.4 mg/L was applied at the WTPs. A monitoring of the processed water at WTPs shows that the flotation process is most effective to the removal of cyanobacteria, with about 77-79{\%} efficiency, compared to ~99.4{\%} achieved with the whole treatment train. Removal of 2-MIB by the treatment processes before flotation was only about 17-28{\%}, which may be limited to the low ratio of cell-bound 2-MIB. The two sand filtration processes removed 23-47{\%} of 2-MIB, due probably to the biological degradation of dissolved 2-MIB. For the two WTP studied, the removal of 2-MIB was about 74{\%}. It is shown that 2-MIB is a major odorant in the drinking water source and the finished water at Kinmen Island. The current processes are not sufficient to remove 2-MIB to a level below the OTC. Advanced processes are needed to effectively remove the odorant.",
author = "Hsieh, {Wen Hsing} and Chang, {De Wei} and Tsair-Fuh Lin",
year = "2015",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000209",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
journal = "Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste",
issn = "2153-5493",
publisher = "American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)",
number = "3",

}

Occurrence and removal of earthy-musty odorants in two waterworks in Kinmen Island, Taiwan. / Hsieh, Wen Hsing; Chang, De Wei; Lin, Tsair-Fuh.

In: Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste, Vol. 18, No. 3, 04014012, 01.07.2015.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Occurrence and removal of earthy-musty odorants in two waterworks in Kinmen Island, Taiwan

AU - Hsieh, Wen Hsing

AU - Chang, De Wei

AU - Lin, Tsair-Fuh

PY - 2015/7/1

Y1 - 2015/7/1

N2 - In this study, the occurrence and treatment of two earthy-musty odorants, geosmin and 2-MIB, produced by cyanobacteria is investigated at two conventional drinking-water treatment plants (WTPs) at Kinmen Island, Taiwan. Samples of the source, processed, and finished waters and tap water at the two WTPs were collected and analyzed. Both geosmin and 2-MIB were commonly detected in most water samples, with the 2-MIB concentration much higher than the geosmin concentration. About 78% of the source water samples and 35% of the finished and tap water samples showed detected 2-MIB levels higher than the odor threshold concentration (OTC, ~10 ng/L). Sampling and analysis of the reservoir water indicated that 2-MIB is uniformly distributed in the reservoir, with ~70% of which existing in the dissolved phase. The chlorination study of the raw water indicates that both geosmin and 2-MIB are resistant to chlorine. However, the cyanobacterial cells in raw water were effectively ruptured within15 min of the contact time when a chlorine dosage of 6.4 mg/L was applied at the WTPs. A monitoring of the processed water at WTPs shows that the flotation process is most effective to the removal of cyanobacteria, with about 77-79% efficiency, compared to ~99.4% achieved with the whole treatment train. Removal of 2-MIB by the treatment processes before flotation was only about 17-28%, which may be limited to the low ratio of cell-bound 2-MIB. The two sand filtration processes removed 23-47% of 2-MIB, due probably to the biological degradation of dissolved 2-MIB. For the two WTP studied, the removal of 2-MIB was about 74%. It is shown that 2-MIB is a major odorant in the drinking water source and the finished water at Kinmen Island. The current processes are not sufficient to remove 2-MIB to a level below the OTC. Advanced processes are needed to effectively remove the odorant.

AB - In this study, the occurrence and treatment of two earthy-musty odorants, geosmin and 2-MIB, produced by cyanobacteria is investigated at two conventional drinking-water treatment plants (WTPs) at Kinmen Island, Taiwan. Samples of the source, processed, and finished waters and tap water at the two WTPs were collected and analyzed. Both geosmin and 2-MIB were commonly detected in most water samples, with the 2-MIB concentration much higher than the geosmin concentration. About 78% of the source water samples and 35% of the finished and tap water samples showed detected 2-MIB levels higher than the odor threshold concentration (OTC, ~10 ng/L). Sampling and analysis of the reservoir water indicated that 2-MIB is uniformly distributed in the reservoir, with ~70% of which existing in the dissolved phase. The chlorination study of the raw water indicates that both geosmin and 2-MIB are resistant to chlorine. However, the cyanobacterial cells in raw water were effectively ruptured within15 min of the contact time when a chlorine dosage of 6.4 mg/L was applied at the WTPs. A monitoring of the processed water at WTPs shows that the flotation process is most effective to the removal of cyanobacteria, with about 77-79% efficiency, compared to ~99.4% achieved with the whole treatment train. Removal of 2-MIB by the treatment processes before flotation was only about 17-28%, which may be limited to the low ratio of cell-bound 2-MIB. The two sand filtration processes removed 23-47% of 2-MIB, due probably to the biological degradation of dissolved 2-MIB. For the two WTP studied, the removal of 2-MIB was about 74%. It is shown that 2-MIB is a major odorant in the drinking water source and the finished water at Kinmen Island. The current processes are not sufficient to remove 2-MIB to a level below the OTC. Advanced processes are needed to effectively remove the odorant.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84936943080&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84936943080&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000209

DO - 10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000209

M3 - Article

VL - 18

JO - Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste

JF - Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste

SN - 2153-5493

IS - 3

M1 - 04014012

ER -