On the bias ratio of automotive worm-gear differentials

Long Chang Hsueh, Hong-Sen Yan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


An automotive worm-gear differential, which has the limited-slip action, is a planetary worm-gear train with two degrees of freedom. Bias ratio of an automotive gear differential is the output torque ratio of the low-speed shaft to the high-speed shaft. We derive mathematical expressions for bias ratios and mechanical efficiencies of automotive worm-gear differentials. The results shows that: (1) an automotive worm-gear differential will be locked up when making a turn of its sun gear is adjacent to the input shaft; (2) the desirable automotive worm-gear differential is the one with two worm-gear pairs and with its carrier adjacent to the input shaft; (3) the bias ratio of the desirable worm-gear differential is over 3; and (4) the bias ratio of a worm-gear differential is the smallest if the helical angle is 45 °.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)212-225
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Vehicle Design
Issue number2-3
Publication statusPublished - 1993 Dec 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


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