The complete thermodynamically consistent turbulent closure models of isochoric and isothermal dry granular dense flows with incompressible grains and weak turbulent intensity are established on the basis of a linearized theory with respect to the granular coldness for the dynamic responses of the closure conditions. The models are applied to study a gravity-driven stationary turbulent flow down an inclined moving plane, and the numerical simulations are compared with the experimental outcomes. It shows that while the mean velocity decreases monotonically from its boundary value on the moving plane toward the free surface, the mean porosity and granular coldness display more “exponential-like” increasing/decreasing tendencies. Of particular interest is that the granular coldness evolves from its maximum value on the moving plane toward its minimum value on the free surface, leading to the turbulent dissipation evolving in a similar manner, while the turbulent kinetic energy demonstrate a reverse tendency. The obtained results show good agreements to the experimental outcomes and are similar to the characteristics of conventional Newtonian fluids in turbulent shear flows.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology
- Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)