Opportunity for HiAP through a Healthy Cities initiative in Taiwan: A multiple streams analysis

Chiachi Bonnie Lee, Nuan Ching Huang, Shiann Far Kung, Susan C. Hu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Health in All Policies (HiAP) is an effective approach to promote population health through addressing comprehensive social determinants of health. In 1997, the World Health Organization designed a 20-step protocol for developing a Healthy Cities (HC) project to build healthy public policies. Taiwan adopted the concept of HC in 2002 and established the first demonstration project in Tainan City in 2003. This study explores the impact of the HC initiative on the development of HiAP, as well as how a window of opportunities for HiAP was opened through the HC movement, using Tainan City as an example. Tainan was selected as the case for this study because of its relative maturity in the development of an HC initiative. A theory-driven thematic analysis was conducted in the study with archived documents between 2003 and 2010. We first adopted a Multiple Streams Approach to examine how the city government opened a window for HiAP through the HC initiative and then drew on the Maturity Model to evaluate the stage of HiAP in the Tainan HC project. After analyzing all related documents, we concluded that HiAP in the Tainan HC project had reached Stage V Institutionalization after 7 years. Key contexts, factors, challenges and strategies were identified. This study suggests that the HC initiative can indeed contribute to the development of HiAP and that the window was opened for HiAP through a concurrence of the three streams of problem, policy and politics along with the HC movement process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)78-88
Number of pages11
JournalHealth promotion international
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2021 Feb 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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