This study provides a first attempt from a perspective of Gaden's classification of fermentation and phase-plane to put forward phenol degradation using various augmented nutrient media for biostimulation. It aimed to identify the most promising nutrient source(s) to attenuate synergistic interactions with phenol for optimal phenol degradation. Therefore, the growth association of phenol degradation using various nutrient media in place of combined toxic interactions was established via Gaden's classification scheme of fermentation and phase-plane analysis. In cultures grown on medium bearing dual carbon sources (glycerol and phenol) or phenol alone, phenol was found to be firstly biodegraded for microbial growth (i.e., growth-associated degradation). In contrast, when yeast extract or acetate was supplemented, a diauxic growth behavior was observed as the augmented nutrient was primarily utilized while phenol degradation was repressed. Moreover, using glycerol as the nutrient source, phenol degradation seemed to be enhanced simultaneously during the consumption of glycerol for cellular growth after ca. 2 h response lag in growth. Although gluconic acid could enhance cell growth as well as phenol degradation, the phenol degradation performance was still not as good as that of glycerol. Thus, biostimulation with glycerol appeared to show the most favorable metabolic characteristics against phenol toxicity on Ralstonia taiwanensis, leading to better degradation efficiency of the toxic pollutant. Phase-plane trajectories also clearly confirmed that glycerol was the optimal biostimulating nutrient source for phenol degradation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis