The rise of mixed-use buildings contributes to the sustainable development of cities but are still met with challenges in energy management due to the lack of energy efficiency and sustainability guidelines. The use of integrated renewable-storage energy systems is a more beneficial solution to this problem over individual solutions; however, most design studies only focused on single-type buildings. Thus, this study aims to optimally design an integrated energy system for mixed-use buildings using HOMER Grid. The objective is to minimize the net present costs, subject to capacity limits, energy balances, and operational constraints. Economic metrics were used to evaluate and compare the proposed system to the varying design cases such as business-as-usual, stand-alone renewable source, and stand-alone energy storage. The case study considered a mixed-use building in a tropical area, with a solar photovoltaic system as the renewable energy source and lithium-ion battery as the energy storage system technology. The results show that the integrated system is the most financially attractive design case. It has a levelized cost of electricity of 0.1384 US$ kWh−1, which is significantly less than the 0.2580 US$ kWh−1 baseline. The system also provides electricity cost savings of 294 698 US$ y−1, excess electricity of 35 746 kWh, and carbon emission reduction of 550 tons annually for a mixed-use building with daily average consumption of 4557-kWh and 763-kW peak demand.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
- Nuclear Energy and Engineering
- Fuel Technology
- Energy Engineering and Power Technology