An experimental and numerical investigation is performed into the optimal processing parameters for the fabrication of aluminum and copper dissimilar lap joints using a pulsed laser welding (PLW) method with a wobble strategy. A circle packing design algorithm is first employed to select 43 representative combinations of the peak laser power and tangential welding speed. The selected parameters are then supplied to a computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) model of the PLW process to predict the melt pool geometry (i.e., interface width and penetration depth) and copper concentration. The simulation results are used to train three surrogate models to predict the melt pool geometry and copper concentration for any combination of the PLW parameters within the design space. Finally, the processing maps constructed using the surrogate models are filtered in accordance with three quality criteria to determine the PLW parameters that produce dissimilar joints with no cracks or pores in the fusion zone and enhanced mechanical and electrical properties. The validity of the proposed optimization approach is demonstrated by evaluating the shear strength, intermetallic compound (IMC) formation, and electrical contact resistance of experimental samples produced using the optimal welding parameters. The results confirm that the optimal parameters yield a high shear strength of 1209 N and a low electrical contact resistance of 86 µΩ. Moreover, the fusion zone is free of defects, such as cracks and pores.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
- Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering