Tyrosine phosphorylation is an important regulator of signaling in cellular pathways, and dysregulated tyrosine phosphorylation causes several diseases. Mass spectrometry has revealed the importance of global phosphoproteomic characterization. Analysis of tyrosine phosphorylation by studying the mass-spectrometry (MS)-determined phosphoproteome remains difficult because of the relatively low abundance of tyrosine phosphoproteins. To effectively evaluate tyrosine-phosphopeptide enrichment and reduce ion suppression from non-phosphorylated peptides in MS analysis, three trypsin-digested BSA peptides and 14 standard phosphopeptides, including six tyrosine phosphopeptides, four serine phosphopeptides, and four threonine phosphopeptides, were subjected to titanium dioxide immunoaffinity-based enrichment and also to combined enrichment using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. The enrichment factors were evaluated to determine the efficiency of each enrichment procedure. Comparison of five optimized enrichment methods, including TiO2-based immunoaffinity purification in Tris and MOPS buffer systems, TiO2-immunoaffinity enrichment, and immunoaffinity-TiO2 enrichment for total tyrosine, serine and threonine phosphopeptides, revealed that the order of the enrichment factors for total tyrosine phosphopeptides is: (i) immunoaffinity-TiO2 (enrichment factor∈=∈38,244), (ii) TiO2-immunoaffinity (enrichment factor∈=∈24,987), (iii) TiO2 micro-column (enrichment factor∈=∈10,305), (iv) immunoaffinity in Tris buffer system (enrichment factor∈=∈1450), and (v) immunoaffinity in the MOPS buffer system (enrichment factor∈=∈32). These results reveal that an alternative enrichment scheme before use of a TiO2 micro-column, using immunoaffinity 4G10 and PY99 antibody enrichment under optimized conditions, can provide greater selectivity for tyrosine-phosphopeptide enrichment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry