Orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis in Taiwan, 1988 through 2015: Acute ophthalmological manifestations, diagnosis, and management

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Abstract

Purpose: Paranasal sinusitis is widespread and can lead to orbital complications, blindness, and death. However, the correlation between ophthalmological findings and disease staging remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the staging, acute ophthalmological manifestations, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis during a 27-year period. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis hospitalized at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital, a medical center in Taiwan during 1988–2015. Sex, age, symptoms, history, ophthalmological findings, laboratory and imaging findings, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed by staging. Results: Eighty-three patients aged 9 days to 80 years had stage I (preseptal cellulitis, n = 39 patients), II (postseptal orbital cellulitis, n = 8), III (subperiosteal abscess, n = 16), IV (orbital abscess, n = 8), or V (intracranial involvement, n = 12) complications. Peak incidences occurred in patients aged 0–19 and 60–69 years. Chronic sinusitis and diabetes mellitus were common preexisting diseases. Extraocular movement limitation and proptosis predicted postseptal (stage II or more) involvement. The likelihood of elevated intraocular pressure increased with stage. Reduced visual acuity and presence of relative afferent pupillary defect indicated consideration of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate possible intracranial extension. Ipsilateral maxillary (81.7%) and ethmoidal (75.6%) sinuses were the most common sources of infection, and the most frequently implicated pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (25.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.5%). All patients received intravenous antimicrobial therapy (multi-drug therapy in 88.0%), and 55.4% underwent surgery, most commonly endoscopic sinus surgery. One (1.2%) diabetic man with stage V complications died of fungal sinusitis with intracranial invasion. Five (6.0%) patients, all stage V, lost vision despite intensive treatment. The average length of hospital stay was 13.8 days (range 2–72 days), and significantly longer stays were associated with stages II–V as compared to stage I. Conclusions: Orbital infection originating from paranasal sinusitis can cause vision loss and death due to intracranial extension. Acute ophthalmological findings predict staging and prognosis. Cooperative consultation between ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and neurologists is essential. Urgent diagnostic studies and aggressive antimicrobial therapy are indicated, and surgery should be considered.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0184477
JournalPloS one
Volume12
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017 Oct

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sinusitis
Sinusitis
Taiwan
Surgery
drug therapy
cellulitis
Drug therapy
Imaging techniques
surgery
Coagulase
abscess
Pathogens
Magnetic resonance
Medical problems
sinuses
Abscess
Length of Stay
Orbital Cellulitis
Pupil Disorders
death

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

@article{8d8c95a288514db0a267c52da0a2c42c,
title = "Orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis in Taiwan, 1988 through 2015: Acute ophthalmological manifestations, diagnosis, and management",
abstract = "Purpose: Paranasal sinusitis is widespread and can lead to orbital complications, blindness, and death. However, the correlation between ophthalmological findings and disease staging remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the staging, acute ophthalmological manifestations, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis during a 27-year period. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis hospitalized at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital, a medical center in Taiwan during 1988–2015. Sex, age, symptoms, history, ophthalmological findings, laboratory and imaging findings, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed by staging. Results: Eighty-three patients aged 9 days to 80 years had stage I (preseptal cellulitis, n = 39 patients), II (postseptal orbital cellulitis, n = 8), III (subperiosteal abscess, n = 16), IV (orbital abscess, n = 8), or V (intracranial involvement, n = 12) complications. Peak incidences occurred in patients aged 0–19 and 60–69 years. Chronic sinusitis and diabetes mellitus were common preexisting diseases. Extraocular movement limitation and proptosis predicted postseptal (stage II or more) involvement. The likelihood of elevated intraocular pressure increased with stage. Reduced visual acuity and presence of relative afferent pupillary defect indicated consideration of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate possible intracranial extension. Ipsilateral maxillary (81.7{\%}) and ethmoidal (75.6{\%}) sinuses were the most common sources of infection, and the most frequently implicated pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (25.3{\%}) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.5{\%}). All patients received intravenous antimicrobial therapy (multi-drug therapy in 88.0{\%}), and 55.4{\%} underwent surgery, most commonly endoscopic sinus surgery. One (1.2{\%}) diabetic man with stage V complications died of fungal sinusitis with intracranial invasion. Five (6.0{\%}) patients, all stage V, lost vision despite intensive treatment. The average length of hospital stay was 13.8 days (range 2–72 days), and significantly longer stays were associated with stages II–V as compared to stage I. Conclusions: Orbital infection originating from paranasal sinusitis can cause vision loss and death due to intracranial extension. Acute ophthalmological findings predict staging and prognosis. Cooperative consultation between ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and neurologists is essential. Urgent diagnostic studies and aggressive antimicrobial therapy are indicated, and surgery should be considered.",
author = "Chang, {Yi Sheng} and Chen, {Po Lin} and Hung, {Jia Horung} and Chen, {Hsiao Yen} and Lai, {Chun Chieh} and Ou, {Chun Yen} and Chang, {Chia Ming} and Wang, {Chien Kuo} and Cheng, {Hon Chun} and Tseng, {Sung Huei}",
year = "2017",
month = "10",
doi = "10.1371/journal.pone.0184477",
language = "English",
volume = "12",
journal = "PLoS One",
issn = "1932-6203",
publisher = "Public Library of Science",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis in Taiwan, 1988 through 2015

T2 - Acute ophthalmological manifestations, diagnosis, and management

AU - Chang, Yi Sheng

AU - Chen, Po Lin

AU - Hung, Jia Horung

AU - Chen, Hsiao Yen

AU - Lai, Chun Chieh

AU - Ou, Chun Yen

AU - Chang, Chia Ming

AU - Wang, Chien Kuo

AU - Cheng, Hon Chun

AU - Tseng, Sung Huei

PY - 2017/10

Y1 - 2017/10

N2 - Purpose: Paranasal sinusitis is widespread and can lead to orbital complications, blindness, and death. However, the correlation between ophthalmological findings and disease staging remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the staging, acute ophthalmological manifestations, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis during a 27-year period. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis hospitalized at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital, a medical center in Taiwan during 1988–2015. Sex, age, symptoms, history, ophthalmological findings, laboratory and imaging findings, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed by staging. Results: Eighty-three patients aged 9 days to 80 years had stage I (preseptal cellulitis, n = 39 patients), II (postseptal orbital cellulitis, n = 8), III (subperiosteal abscess, n = 16), IV (orbital abscess, n = 8), or V (intracranial involvement, n = 12) complications. Peak incidences occurred in patients aged 0–19 and 60–69 years. Chronic sinusitis and diabetes mellitus were common preexisting diseases. Extraocular movement limitation and proptosis predicted postseptal (stage II or more) involvement. The likelihood of elevated intraocular pressure increased with stage. Reduced visual acuity and presence of relative afferent pupillary defect indicated consideration of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate possible intracranial extension. Ipsilateral maxillary (81.7%) and ethmoidal (75.6%) sinuses were the most common sources of infection, and the most frequently implicated pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (25.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.5%). All patients received intravenous antimicrobial therapy (multi-drug therapy in 88.0%), and 55.4% underwent surgery, most commonly endoscopic sinus surgery. One (1.2%) diabetic man with stage V complications died of fungal sinusitis with intracranial invasion. Five (6.0%) patients, all stage V, lost vision despite intensive treatment. The average length of hospital stay was 13.8 days (range 2–72 days), and significantly longer stays were associated with stages II–V as compared to stage I. Conclusions: Orbital infection originating from paranasal sinusitis can cause vision loss and death due to intracranial extension. Acute ophthalmological findings predict staging and prognosis. Cooperative consultation between ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and neurologists is essential. Urgent diagnostic studies and aggressive antimicrobial therapy are indicated, and surgery should be considered.

AB - Purpose: Paranasal sinusitis is widespread and can lead to orbital complications, blindness, and death. However, the correlation between ophthalmological findings and disease staging remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the staging, acute ophthalmological manifestations, diagnosis, management, and outcomes of orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis during a 27-year period. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients with orbital complications of paranasal sinusitis hospitalized at the National Cheng Kung University Hospital, a medical center in Taiwan during 1988–2015. Sex, age, symptoms, history, ophthalmological findings, laboratory and imaging findings, treatments, and outcomes were analyzed by staging. Results: Eighty-three patients aged 9 days to 80 years had stage I (preseptal cellulitis, n = 39 patients), II (postseptal orbital cellulitis, n = 8), III (subperiosteal abscess, n = 16), IV (orbital abscess, n = 8), or V (intracranial involvement, n = 12) complications. Peak incidences occurred in patients aged 0–19 and 60–69 years. Chronic sinusitis and diabetes mellitus were common preexisting diseases. Extraocular movement limitation and proptosis predicted postseptal (stage II or more) involvement. The likelihood of elevated intraocular pressure increased with stage. Reduced visual acuity and presence of relative afferent pupillary defect indicated consideration of magnetic resonance imaging to investigate possible intracranial extension. Ipsilateral maxillary (81.7%) and ethmoidal (75.6%) sinuses were the most common sources of infection, and the most frequently implicated pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (25.3%) and Staphylococcus aureus (20.5%). All patients received intravenous antimicrobial therapy (multi-drug therapy in 88.0%), and 55.4% underwent surgery, most commonly endoscopic sinus surgery. One (1.2%) diabetic man with stage V complications died of fungal sinusitis with intracranial invasion. Five (6.0%) patients, all stage V, lost vision despite intensive treatment. The average length of hospital stay was 13.8 days (range 2–72 days), and significantly longer stays were associated with stages II–V as compared to stage I. Conclusions: Orbital infection originating from paranasal sinusitis can cause vision loss and death due to intracranial extension. Acute ophthalmological findings predict staging and prognosis. Cooperative consultation between ophthalmologists, otorhinolaryngologists, and neurologists is essential. Urgent diagnostic studies and aggressive antimicrobial therapy are indicated, and surgery should be considered.

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U2 - 10.1371/journal.pone.0184477

DO - 10.1371/journal.pone.0184477

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VL - 12

JO - PLoS One

JF - PLoS One

SN - 1932-6203

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