To understand the status of oropharyngeal yeast colonization in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected outpatients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we conducted a prospective, cross-sectional study from October 2009 to January 2010 at a medical centre in southern Taiwan. Fungal cultures of the oropharyngeal swabs were performed on 327 enrolled patients. At enrolment, 258 (79%) patients had been receiving HAART, and 42 (12.8%), 73 (22.3%) and 212 (64.8%) patients had CD4 cell counts ≤200, 201-350, and >350 cells/mm3, respectively. Oral yeast colonization was detected in 193 (59%) patients, among whom 157 (81.3%), 25 (13.0%), and 11 (5.7%) were colonized by a single, two and more than two species, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that receipt of efavirenz-containing regiments and CD4 cell counts >200 cells/mm3 were associated with lower risks of oral yeast colonization, while intravenous drug users were at a higher risk. Among the 241 isolates recovered, Candida albicans accounted for 69.7%, followed by C. dubliniensis (9.5%), C. glabrata (8.3%), C. tropicalis (3.3%), C. intermedia (2.1%), C. parapsilosis (1.7%), and 11 other species (5.4%). Overall, 230 (95.4%), 236 (97.9%) and 240 (99.6%) isolates were susceptible to fluconazole, voriconazole and amphotericin B, respectively. In conclusion, colonization by C. dubliniensis has emerged in recent years. In addition to a CD4 cell count ≤200cells/mm3, which is a known risk factor for oropharyngeal yeast colonization in HIV-infected patients that was identified in our previous studies, two risk factors, non-receipt of efavirenz-based combinations and intravenous drug use, were first identified in the present study. Fluconazole remained effective in vitro against the yeasts colonizing the oropharynx in this population.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Microbiology (medical)
- Infectious Diseases