Oxidative torrefaction of microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana: Process optimization by central composite design

Charles B. Felix, Wei Hsin Chen, Jo Shu Chang, Young Kwon Park, Samrand Saeidi, Gopalakrishnan Kumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Microalgae are currently not viable as solid biofuels owing to their poor raw fuel properties. Torrefaction under oxidative media offers a cost-effective and energy-efficient process to address these drawbacks. A design of experiment was conducted using central composite design with three factors: temperature (200, 250, and 300 °C), time (10, 35, and 60 min), and O2 concentration (3, 12, and 21 vol%). The responses were solid yield, energy yield, higher heating value, and onset temperatures at 50% and 90% carbon conversion determined from thermogravimetric analysis. Temperature and time significantly affected all responses, while O2 concentration only affected higher heating value, energy yield and thermodegradation temperature at 90% conversion. Oxidative torrefaction of microalgae is recommended to be conducted at 200 °C, 10.6 min, 12% O2 where the energy yield and enhancement factor are 98.73% and 1.08, respectively. It is also more reactive under an air environment compared to inert torrefaction conditions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number129200
JournalBioresource technology
Volume382
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023 Aug

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Bioengineering
  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Waste Management and Disposal

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