Diverse soil microbial community is determinant for sustainable agriculture. Rich microbial diversity has presumably improved soil health for economic crops to grow. In this work, the benefits of paddy-upland rotation on soil microbial diversity and specific microbes are thus intensively explored. The microbiome from multiple factor experiment (three fertilizations coupled with two rotation systems) were investigated by novel enrichment and co-occurrence analysis in a field well maintained for 25 years. Using next-generation sequencing technique, we firstly present explicit evidence that different rotation systems rather than fertilizations mightily governed the soil microbiome. Paddy-upland rotation (R1) obviously increase more microbial diversity than upland rotation (R2) whether organic (OF), chemical (CF) or integrated fertilizers (IF) were concomitantly applied. Besides, the specific bacterial composition dominated in OF soil is more similar to that of R1 than to CF, suggesting that paddy-upland rotation might be the best option for sustainable agriculture if chemical fertilizer is still required. Interestingly, the pot bioassay verified clearly the novel analysis prediction, illustrating that greater microbial diversity and specific microbial composition correlated significantly with disease resistance. This finding highlights the eminence of paddy-upland rotation in promoting microbial diversity and specific microbial compositions, preserving soil health for sustainable agriculture.
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