Objective: To test the feasibility of partial nephrectomy using needle arrays under alternating current (AC) electromagnetic field without renal artery clamping. Methods: We performed an experimental study for partial nephrectomy without renal artery clamping in a porcine model, comparing a new thermal surgery system consisting of an AC electromagnetic field generator and stainless steel needle arrays (using 10 pigs) vs an ultrasonic Harmonic Scalpel (on 8 pigs). Two cm of the upper pole of the kidneys were resected, and then the feasibility, operation time, blood loss, biochemical parameters, pathology, and complications were observed for 14 days. Results: There was no difference by weight in the mean percentage of kidney removed between the 2 groups (8.1 ± 3.4% vs 12.7 ± 5.5%). The estimated blood loss for the partial nephrectomy with electromagnetic thermal surgery system was significantly less compared to the ultrasonic Harmonic Scalpel (53.0 ± 73.0 vs 188.8 ± 49.3 mL). Transection time was shorter with the electromagnetic thermal surgery system (10 vs 12 minutes). Bleeding from the cut surface after partial nephrectomy was noted in 2 pigs (electromagnetic surgery group) and 8 pigs (control group); all the bleeding was controlled with additional monopolar electrocoagulation and sutures. No urinoma was identified in either group when a second laparotomy was performed 2 weeks later. Conclusion: Our study of a partial nephrectomy in a porcine model demonstrates that the heat generated by the electromagnetic thermal surgery system is sufficient to coagulate renal parenchyma and to seal off the blood vessels without pedicle clamping.
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