Performance evaluation of different reflected signal extraction methods on GNSS-R derived sea level heights

Chi–Ming M. Lee, Cheng–Yun Y. Fu, Wen–Hau H. Lan, Chung–Yen Y. Kuo

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In order to obtain reliable GNSS-R derived sea level heights (SLHs), it is crucial to extract accurate reflected signals from signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) data. In this study, Quadratic Fitting, Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD), Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD), and Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) are adopted for extracting the reflected signals from SNR data, which are then analyzed with Lomb Scargle Periodogram (LSP) assisted with tidal harmonic analysis for GNSS-R SLHs. Three continuous GNSS stations including Onsala in Sweden, Friday Harbor in the United States, and Brest in France with tidal ranges of approximately 1 m, 3 m, and 7 m, respectively, were used in the study. The derived SLHs were evaluated against the nearby or co-located tide gauge records. The results reveal that the three proposed algorithms effectively cope with the multi-peaks spectrum problems when using the conventional Quadratic Fitting without a priori reflected height constraint, and SSA can provide the solutions with fewer outliers among the proposed methods with the RMSEs of 6.7 cm, 13.4 cm and 39.6 cm at Onsala, Friday Harbor, and Brest stations, respectively. Without implementing tidal harmonic analysis, SSA is the method capable of acquiring reliable SLHs among the stations, as evidenced by comparing with co-located gauge records, particularly at the Brest station. In summary, SSA not only distinguishes signals across different frequencies, but also orders the signal components according to their eigenvalues, demonstrating the potential to extract the reflected signals from SNR and enhance the stability and accuracy of GNSS-R applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)89-104
Number of pages16
JournalAdvances in Space Research
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024 Jul 1

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Geophysics
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • General Earth and Planetary Sciences


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