Atherosclerosis and resultant peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are common complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus or end-stage renal disease and in elderly patients. The prevalence of PAD is higher in patients receiving haemodialysis therapy. For early assessment of arterial occlusion using bilateral photoplethysmography (PPG), such as changes in pulse transit time and pulse shape, bilateral timing differences could be used to identify the risk level of PAD. Hence, the authors propose a discrete fractional-order integrator to calculate the bilateral area under the systolic peak (AUSP). These indices indicated the differences in both rise-timing and amplitudes of PPG signals. The dexter and sinister AUSP ratios were preliminarily used to separate the normal condition from low/high risk of PAD. Then, transition probability-based decision-making model was employed to evaluate the risk levels. The joint probability could be specified as a critical threshold, < 0.81, to identify the true positive for screening low or high risk level of PAD, referring to the patients' health records. In contrast to the bilateral timing differences and traditional methods, the proposed model showed better efficiency in PAD assessments and provided a promising strategy to be implemented in an embedded system.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Modelling and Simulation
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology