Phase formation mechanism of the zinc titanate precursor powders prepared at various pH using a hydrothermal process

Cheng Li Wang, Hsueh Liang Chu, Horng Huey Ko, Chi Shiung Hsi, Wang-Long Li, Weng Sing Hwang, Kuo Ming Chang, Moo Chin Wang

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Abstract

Zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized from the initial materials of TiCl 4 and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O using a hydrothermal route at various pH environments. The phase formation mechanism of the zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at various pH using a hydrothermal process was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The XRD results show that the phase formation was affected by the pH environment. The zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at pH 5 and calcined at 500 °C for 1 h, anatase TiO 2 and ZnO as the major and secondary phase, respectively. The phases of rutile TiO 2 , Zn 2 TiO 4 and ZnTiO 3 appeared when the precursor powders calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h. Moreover, when the zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized at pH 9 and calcined at 500 °C for 1 h, the phases of ZnO and Zn 2 Ti 3 O 8 appeared. When the zinc titanate precursor powders calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, Zn 2 TiO 4 and rutile TiO 2 was the major phase and the minor phases, respectively. However, when the zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized at pH 7 and calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, phase formation was similar to the precursor powders synthesized at pH 9 and calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, but the minor phase of ZnTiO 3 disappeared. The SAED results of zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at various pH and calcined at different temperatures for 1 h also agreed with the XRD results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2028-2041
Number of pages14
JournalCeramics International
Volume41
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015 Mar 1

Fingerprint

Powders
Zinc
Electron diffraction
X ray diffraction
High resolution transmission electron microscopy
Titanium dioxide
Transmission electron microscopy
titanium dioxide

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

Wang, Cheng Li ; Chu, Hsueh Liang ; Ko, Horng Huey ; Hsi, Chi Shiung ; Li, Wang-Long ; Hwang, Weng Sing ; Chang, Kuo Ming ; Wang, Moo Chin. / Phase formation mechanism of the zinc titanate precursor powders prepared at various pH using a hydrothermal process. In: Ceramics International. 2015 ; Vol. 41, No. 2. pp. 2028-2041.
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abstract = "Zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized from the initial materials of TiCl 4 and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O using a hydrothermal route at various pH environments. The phase formation mechanism of the zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at various pH using a hydrothermal process was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The XRD results show that the phase formation was affected by the pH environment. The zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at pH 5 and calcined at 500 °C for 1 h, anatase TiO 2 and ZnO as the major and secondary phase, respectively. The phases of rutile TiO 2 , Zn 2 TiO 4 and ZnTiO 3 appeared when the precursor powders calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h. Moreover, when the zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized at pH 9 and calcined at 500 °C for 1 h, the phases of ZnO and Zn 2 Ti 3 O 8 appeared. When the zinc titanate precursor powders calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, Zn 2 TiO 4 and rutile TiO 2 was the major phase and the minor phases, respectively. However, when the zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized at pH 7 and calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, phase formation was similar to the precursor powders synthesized at pH 9 and calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, but the minor phase of ZnTiO 3 disappeared. The SAED results of zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at various pH and calcined at different temperatures for 1 h also agreed with the XRD results.",
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Phase formation mechanism of the zinc titanate precursor powders prepared at various pH using a hydrothermal process. / Wang, Cheng Li; Chu, Hsueh Liang; Ko, Horng Huey; Hsi, Chi Shiung; Li, Wang-Long; Hwang, Weng Sing; Chang, Kuo Ming; Wang, Moo Chin.

In: Ceramics International, Vol. 41, No. 2, 01.03.2015, p. 2028-2041.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Wang, Moo Chin

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N2 - Zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized from the initial materials of TiCl 4 and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O using a hydrothermal route at various pH environments. The phase formation mechanism of the zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at various pH using a hydrothermal process was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The XRD results show that the phase formation was affected by the pH environment. The zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at pH 5 and calcined at 500 °C for 1 h, anatase TiO 2 and ZnO as the major and secondary phase, respectively. The phases of rutile TiO 2 , Zn 2 TiO 4 and ZnTiO 3 appeared when the precursor powders calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h. Moreover, when the zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized at pH 9 and calcined at 500 °C for 1 h, the phases of ZnO and Zn 2 Ti 3 O 8 appeared. When the zinc titanate precursor powders calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, Zn 2 TiO 4 and rutile TiO 2 was the major phase and the minor phases, respectively. However, when the zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized at pH 7 and calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, phase formation was similar to the precursor powders synthesized at pH 9 and calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, but the minor phase of ZnTiO 3 disappeared. The SAED results of zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at various pH and calcined at different temperatures for 1 h also agreed with the XRD results.

AB - Zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized from the initial materials of TiCl 4 and Zn(NO 3 ) 2 ·6H 2 O using a hydrothermal route at various pH environments. The phase formation mechanism of the zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at various pH using a hydrothermal process was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), nanobeam electron diffraction (NBED) and high resolution TEM (HRTEM). The XRD results show that the phase formation was affected by the pH environment. The zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at pH 5 and calcined at 500 °C for 1 h, anatase TiO 2 and ZnO as the major and secondary phase, respectively. The phases of rutile TiO 2 , Zn 2 TiO 4 and ZnTiO 3 appeared when the precursor powders calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h. Moreover, when the zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized at pH 9 and calcined at 500 °C for 1 h, the phases of ZnO and Zn 2 Ti 3 O 8 appeared. When the zinc titanate precursor powders calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, Zn 2 TiO 4 and rutile TiO 2 was the major phase and the minor phases, respectively. However, when the zinc titanate precursor powders were synthesized at pH 7 and calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, phase formation was similar to the precursor powders synthesized at pH 9 and calcined at 1000 °C for 1 h, but the minor phase of ZnTiO 3 disappeared. The SAED results of zinc titanate precursor powders synthesized at various pH and calcined at different temperatures for 1 h also agreed with the XRD results.

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