The transcription factor NF-κB (nuclear factor κB) co-ordinates various gene expressions in response to diverse signals and is a critical regulator of inflammation and innate immunity. Several negative regulators of NF-κB have been identified as downstream targets of NF-κB and function as a feedback control of NF-κB activation. A few protein phosphatases have also been shown to inactivate NF-κB activation. However, little is known about how protein phosphatases detect and respond to NF-κB activation. In the present study, we report a regulatory subunit of PP5 (protein phosphatase 5),G4-1, that physically interactswith IKKβ [IκB (inhibitor of NF-κB) kinase β] and negatively regulates NF-κB activation. The association of G4-1 with IKKβ depends on the kinase activity of IKKβ. Mapping of the G4-1-binding domain of IKKβ reveals that the serine-rich domain in the C-terminus of IKKβ is required for G4-1 binding. When seven autophosphorylated serine residues in this domain were mutated to alanine, the mutant form of IKKβ lost its ability to bind G4-1 and was more potent than the wild-type kinase to activate NF-κB. Knockdown of G4-1 enhanced TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α)-induced NF-κB activity, and knockdown of PP5 totally abolished the inhibitory activity of G4-1 on NF-κB activation. The results of the present study suggest that G4-1 functions as an adaptor to recruit PP5 to the phosphorylated C-terminus of activated IKKβ and to down-regulate the activation of IKKβ.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology